The impact of new media technologies on the distribution of music.

The distribution of music has changed over the years. The world of music has become more diverse. A transformation is happening in the music industry that is having a bigger influence than when compact discs replaced vinyl records back in 1980s. This transformation is pushed by developments in technologies for compressing digital music that make it useful to circulate music over the Internet

The digital music transformation is already having an extensive influence on numerous industries. Many years will pass before the complete results are revealed, but even at this early phase, a lot of people are having benefits from opportunities generated as digital music takes form. New models of businesses are quickly developing and putting well-known companies under a lot of stress.

Because of the world of Internet, you don’t have to depend on the radio to listen to you favorite music, and you wont have to concern about sold out albums. The Internet give you access to a much broader collection of music, and you can listen music through various websites that allow you to listen first and then buy , such an example is Spotify. “Word of Mouth” is also a form of free advertising and maybe the most successful one.

Not only are the ordinary people like us get benefit from online music distribution but musicians as well as they have more control over their music. Thanks to MP3 and the Internet, Independent musicians and bands that don’t have record contracts from well known companies now have the approach to a universal delivery channel that offers them a much higher profit prospective.

“With digital distribution, any label can connect with customers either directly via their own website or by getting their music on external sites, which is good for independents but independent labels STILL need to be able to get into the physical shops (which can be a problem.” (Macy, 2009 : 231)

Music industry executives may worry about decreasing traditional sales, but some enterprising musicians and labels have planned new methods to sell music that give fans something different and something to collect, even when nowadays the music can be extremely copied for free.

As Mhoon says in the video we watched in the seminar of my “Media and new Technologies” module, It’s a message to the industry that If they can’t sell their music, they should sell something else, something unique.


Amy Macy (2009) ‘Music Distribution and Retail’ in Hepworth-Sawyer, Russ (ed.) From Demo to Delivery: The Process of Production, Burlington: Focal Press (chapter ten).


How have media convergence, gaming and traditional media intersected?

“ We are living in an age when changes in communications, storytelling and information technologies are reshaping almost every aspect of contemporary life — including how we create, consume, learn, and interact with each other. “ (Henry Jenkins, Unknown)

 Media Convergence as I talked in a previous blog has changed a lot our everyday lives. A part of what it changed was gaming as well. Users now with the introduction of web 2.0, they have the opportunity to interact with other users online and not only play online with someone in another country but interact with each other and share opinions.

There is online support created for games such World of “Warcraft “ and there are online stores such as the PlayStation online store and the Nintendo’s Virtual Console.

In may case people use user generated content, mostly on YouTube by creating their own stories such as “The Sims” and by recording their high scores playing the best they can in order to show it off on YouTube. There is interaction with other gamers online as they capture their tricks and the game keeps on going. 

In old times you just had the console or the computer to play the game without the online world that now exists. It was solely just the gamer and the game. The only way two players could play with each other was by using the same console with two remote controls.

Users are able to accesses old games through new online media websites by downloading it etc.  Game have now expanded from single formats and have reached a wider audience.

 If we take “Memento” by Christopher Nolan, a puzzle film can be considered as a form of gaming as it needs a very strong and concentrated mind , people have to figure out throughout the whole film what is going on due to being unstructured. They can understand after a while that black and white scenes are in chronological order, whereas the colored scenes are not. These is a form of media convergence.





Jenkins, Henry, (unknown) “Media Convergence” [online] available here: [last accessed 11th of May 2012]

Film on DVD

DVD releases have been popular for a long time now. They do not remain the same as they constantly evolve trying to find new ways to keep up the enthusiasm.

 The film I have chose to discuss is Memento . Memento is a puzzle film, where you have to be good with memory. It is the type of film that you have to watch it more than one time to fully understand what is going on.

The film “Memento” is most appropriate to the DVD presentation, which gives you plenty time and opportunity to go deeper and study the film more taking scene by scene, to analyze the mystery and see how its bits fit together. This is a DVD that requests many viewings and it provides a new viewng experience every time you watch it.

The special edition DVD comes with 2 disks. At the beginning of the first dsc , you are given a memory test. A series of words are presented to you, and you have to remember those words n order to be able to go through the main menu, which is a test of text memorizing. You may think that this memory game is just annoying, but it really gets you excited for the film.

There is a commentary from the director Christopher Nolan which is filled with sneak peaks into how the film was made and the meaning of the film. For me, watching the steps of production of a film that I loved , makes me want to appreciate all the effort that was put into it.

The second disc continues to have the memory games and keeps the same atmosphere of mystery only this time you had combine some forms of code in order to access some of the special features.

A very exciting special feature was the director’s script, which let you see the full explained shooting script as the film was playing. You could use your button to change from the script to the film.

Hidden inside the second disc there is the “chronological order” type of the film. It is called the “Clock” feature and it give you the chance to see Memento restructured in its chronological order.

The design of the Memento Special Edition DVD package improves the drive of the film and changes the whole experience of the film. People who are into games will never want to stop watching it as it become quite addictive.



Memeno (2000), Christopher Nolan

The ‘Viewertariat’ (Anstead and O’Loughlin, 2011)

In their article ‘The Emerging Viewertariat and BBC Question Time: Television Debate and Real-Time Commenting Online’, Nick Anstead and Ben O’Loughlin state that:

…viewers can share their views on a television broadcast while it occurs, and debate content and interpretation in real time. We term this phenomenon the emergence of the viewertariat, which we define as viewers who use online publishing platforms and social tools to interpret, publicly comment on, and debate a television broadcast while they are watching it. The viewertariat is an example of media hybridity, meaning a blurring of old and new processes to form new systems and practices (2011: 441).

As explained about it above, twitter is a new way to follow what the audience is responding to television shows, as they are running live providing an exclusive sneak peak from individuals’ political opinions and enthusiasms, according to the research by Anstead and O’Loughlin.

Just like online Journalism, people can share opinions on twitter and it is almost as if they are having a debate at the same time while the TV show is running. It changes the TV consumption/viewing, as more people can get involved, whereas in traditional ways they would just watch the programme without exchanging opinions with hundreds and thousands of different people. The reason for the use of twitter being so popular on opinion sharing is because people want to use the tools they are given. Nowadays with media convergence and transmedia people can have the information they want with just a click so what stops them from creating a conversation or a debate just as they would if people were around them at the time of the broadcast.

“There is the potential for viewers who aren’t part of the studio audience to participate in these televised political events, though broadcasters must be wary of the usual token gestures where they say “email us your opinion” just to fill time. This will force broadcasters to think about what meaningful participation would look like.” (Anstead, Nick and Ben O’Loughlin , 2011) It is also a way for TV presenters to pass out information that the audience requires that didn’t think of in advance. It is like a live conversation between the spectators and the presenters.

I have to admit that I no longer watch TV, I only access any information I want via Twitter and Facebook as I believe it is more clear and I get a lot of opinions. I created a critical mind and I am not accepting whatever is presented to me. By reading through other people’s opinions I form my own as well.



Anstead, Nick and Ben O’Loughlin (2011) ‘The Emerging Viewertariat and BBC Question Time: Television Debate and Real-Time Commenting Online’ in The International Journal of Press/Politics, Volume 16, Number 4, pp440-462.

Does online journalism make consumers more analytical of their news media?’

Journalism is shifting to engage consumers more as active members and less as passive users. Online journalism can be accessed at any time, anywhere nowadays with the development of technology.

 In past years in order to access the news we had to wait until night time to watch them through television or from buying the newspaper every morning. The ways that technology has developed has helped the consumers to be able to access any information they wish at anytime,  faster. It has made it easy for the consumer to access only information they are interested in and avoid news that are not of interest.

Nowadays, because consumers are more free to make their own choices because of the many materials that are being provided to them, they develop a more critical mind as to what they will believe and rely on. Online journalism offers the consumers the ability to comment and put across their views and beliefs. Not only they can comment on several journal posts but they can form an idea from reading other comments from other readers as well.  

TheMediaHouse (YouTube)- What are the advantages of Online Journalism? –

Is Cross Platform Marketing Effective?

What is Cross Platform Marketing?


Cross Platform marketing is a wider form of traditional marketing through a variety of new media. It inspires interactivity and goes into more depth instead of just standing in front of the television watching or reading the advertisement. Sometimes it is even seen as entertainment instead of just advertisements.

 There are a lot of reasons why nowadays cross platform marketing is more encouraged.  Firstly it is a lot cheaper than traditional advertising. It can be easily spread and faster by the use of “word of mouth”.  It allows the practice of more fun techniques , if there is a targeted audience there is an immediate engagement with the fans that wouldn’t be possible to reach that huge amount via traditional marketing.

 A prime example and most probably the most successful one is the film “The Blair Witch Project”.  The film’s budget was just 30 thousand dollars  and the way they chose to advertise it was through cross platform marketing. For example the website that was up and running a year prior to the film release. It successfully made 140.5 million dollars in US alone and 250 million dollars worldwide ( , 1999). Using that method the blair Witch Project managed to forma realistic aesthetic making it better than a traditional movie marketing campaign and it engaged a lot with the fans.

 In an Interview that Jonathan Gray had with Henry Jenkins he was asked, “why and in what ways do such materials (trailers and cross platform marketing) shape our experience of films and television programs?” Grey responded that all of us have seen thousands of trailers and we often hear evaluations of film form the people around us before it even releases on the big screen. That is because even through that short period of time in the trailer you learn something about the characters and the plot and you can judge whether it is good or bad. “Whether they can identify with them, about the genre of the film, about the kind of world that it’s set in. In short, they’re getting a pre-view of the film’s basic components, and it’s thus being constructed as a meaningful entity for them. When the film finally comes along, it doesn’t begin with a fresh slate; rather, its viewers have a history with it. They’ve come with expectations, with engagements with certain characters, and with an idea of how to make sense of it.” (Gray, Jenkins, 2012,


The Blair Witch Project (1999) Dianie Myrick.  (Last accessed 10th of May 2012)

Jenkins, Henry (2010) On Anti-Fans and Paratexts: An Interview with Jonathan Gray (Part Two) [online] available here: (Last accessed May 10th 2012.)

Fandom and Intellectual Property

Fandom means when fans create things for their most favorite musician, film, and hobbies or in simple words something of interest to them. What is a fan? A fan is someone who will go into more depth about something that he/she is particularly interested in.

 Whether fan creations though, belong to the fans that created it or to the original author is a large debate.

 When a fan makes a video about his favorite movie and uploads it on YouTube then he or she is simply showing appreciation of the creator of the movie. Not only, but it is free marketing and advertising as well. The intellectual property of the characters and universe that the fan fiction is centered on though, belongs to the creator of the original work. Copyright additionally defends and protects the author’s works. You cannot sell fan fiction using somebody else’s “invention” and it is as simple as that. Some authors go as far as forbidding their fans to write fan fiction based on their work.   

 Fan fiction cannot be published. The copyright issues surrounding fan fiction are complicated, but the one thing that everyone seems to agree on is that making a profit from fan fiction is a abuse of intellectual property. It is like building a house on someone else’s land. I believe that non-profit fan fiction is legal, but the copyright owners do not always agree and they do everything they can to bring their warning down on us. An example is Anna Rice.

“The wildly popular Anne Rice, author of Interview with the Vampire is one of those authors who is famously and unapologetically against — even offended by — the idea of fan-fiction. On her website, she writes “I do not allow fan-fiction. The characters are copyrighted. It upsets me terribly to even think about fan-fiction with my characters. I advise my readers to write your own original stories with your own characters. It is absolutely essential that you respect my wishes”.” (



Temple, E (2012) “Abusing the People of Westeros: Famous Authors on Fan fiction” [online] available here: (last accessed 10th of May 2012)

Transmedia or Marketing?

What is Transmedia?


“…different media and languages participate and contribute to the construction of the transmedia narrative world.” (Scolari, 2009)

a particular narrative structure that expands through both different languages (verbal, iconic, etc.) and media (cinema, comics, television, video games, etc.).” (Scolari 2009)


Many people find themselves comparing transmedia narratives with cross platform marketing. There are some similarities but they are not entirely the same.


Transmedia is about telling parts of the exact same narrative in altered media. It is not just about providing costumers a different approach into the same world; it is a different viewpoint into the same narrative. Whereas Cross platform marketing is not expanding the narrative , it is just advertising it in different platforms. Both of them though do it for money input.

Both transmedia narratives and cross platform marketing accomplish to give a further understanding of the “product” and they inspire fans to get involved more.


Scolari, Carlos Alberto, 2009, ‘Transmedia Storytelling: Implicit Consumers, Narrative Worlds, and Branding in Contemporary Media Production’, International Journal of Communication, Vol.3 P. 586-606

User Generated Content and Journalism.

Unlike shows on TV or radio and print, people that use the internet do not need to send something to the giants of media to distribute it and pass it on to an audience, instead they distribute it themselves even if its through a personal YouTube account or through a personal blog etc. There are various ways to pass their work or opinion to a wider audience and that is through the Internet.

With user generated content online there are no boundaries on the space that it can take. (Bradshaw, 2010)

The issue with User Generated Content is trust. The question nowadays though is not if we trust the people running the website but whether we trust the people that are on it, people like us. The difference is that “content is being generated” by anybody who wants to and then being evaluated by anyone. If we take EBay for example, we trust the website but we don’t really trust the people who are selling products on it. Wikipedia is a prime example as well as there are a lot of false information on it since that information is being taken through websites that we don’t know if they are reliable.

Due to the improvement of technology and science, the world is facing an information revolution. Citizen journalists are normal people who are not employed or trained as professional journalists for a living to create and pass on news, videos and photos etc.  The idea of citizen journalism is that everybody can become one and everybody can get involved and pass on their opinions.

The debate is whether user generated content is affecting news and journalism. Does it?

Effie Moor Salem states that “Citizen journalism is making an impact on the publishing industry. It is the latest most talked about news media change to hit the editors desks. Some editors love it, some hate it but all admit it is here to stay. Why is that? Citizen journalism has proven itself to be an effective part of news reporting and an asset to journalists and editors. When news breaks not everyone that should be there, is there. Television and the internet needs to get involved immediately.” (Effie M.S, 2009)


Effie, M.S (2009) “Effects on media journalism on mainstream media” [online] available here: (last accessed May 10th 2012)

Bradshaw, P (2010) “ What is user-generated content?” [online] available here: (last accessed May 10th 2012)

Media Convergence.

What is Media Convergence? 

Because of the development of technology some different types of media for example Television Radio computer Newspaper etc. are coming together into one single media form. For example if we take television and the computer technology, both are becoming the same thing very fast. You can watch TV on you laptop and a lot of television broadcasters can use the information on the Internet. 

In Convergence Culture: When Old and New Media Collide (2006), Henry Jenkins states that:

“…convergence represents a cultural shift as consumers are encouraged to seek out new information and make connections among dispersed media content” (2006: p3).

That is true as people are encouraged to develop their minds and seek out more information instead of relying on one specific source of information. As Jenkin states that, by making connections among dispersed media content , people will be more educated and more informed. They will have plenty of resources to understand and critique which source is the most reliable. 

Jenkins goes onto to suggest that:

Convergence does not occur through media appliances, however sophisticated they become. Convergence occurs within the brains of individual consumers and through their social interactions with others (2006: 3).

People are influenced by each other and that is how media convergence happens. Using new media is a way of life now as all people follow the new developments. Social Interactions, “word of mouth” is the prime reason why convergence happens. 



-Jenkins, Henry (2006) Convergence Culture: When Old and New Media Collide, New york : New York University Press.